Lithium Nephropathy

Coronal and Axial CT images from a patient on long term Lithium therapy show innumerable micro cysts randomly distributed in both kidneys. Lithium Nephropathy / Lithium induced renal disease Radiology features Multiple innumerable micro cysts randomly distributed in BOTH cortex and medulla or predominantly cortex are characteristic radiology findings in cases of lithium induced renal disease/lithium […]

Pulmonary cement embolism after vertebroplasty

In our recent article: Pulmonary embolism diagnosis: What else the radiologist MUST report! We had posted the above image. This patient presented with breathlessness after a vertebroplasty. Here are more images:     To confirm that these are pulmonary cement embolism and not dense contrast I have shown the same images with HU values. HU values […]

Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

Hypoxic- Ischemic Encephalopathy Causes in adults: Drowning Asphyxiation Cardiac arrest Cerebrovascular accident Selectively vulnerable areas of the brain: For detailed pathophysiology cascade Areas with highest concentrations of glutamate or other excitatory amino acid receptors Areas of the brain with greatest energy demands. Mild to moderate ischemic insult: Watershed territory infarcts. Severe ischemic insult: Basal ganglia […]

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal Neuralgia : Presents as sudden onset of severe, unilateral, paroxysmal pain in one or more of the distributions of the trigeminal nerve. Causes : Vascular compression. Multiple sclerosis. Mass lesions. Vascular compression is most common cause, superior cerebellar artery being the most common culprit. Proximal centrally myelinated portion of the nerve is more susceptibility […]

Subependymal heterotopia / Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia (PVNH)

Subependymal heterotopia/Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia Arrest of normal neuronal migration along the radial glial cells. Subependymal nodules of grey matter line the lateral walls of the ventricles. Nodules follow grey matter signal intensity and do not enhance following contrast administration. Associations: Ventriculomegaly. Agenesis of corpus callosum. Cortical dysplasia Differential Tuberous sclerosis: Subependymal nodules in TS are […]