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Amyand Hernia

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Amyand hernia is a rare type of inguinal hernia where the appendix is found within the hernia sac.

Amyand Hernia CT image
Coronal post contrast CT scan showing an Amyand hernia – Appendix herniating into a right inguinal hernia. Additionally a left inguinal hernia containing fat and bowel loops is noted.

Etymology

It is named after the English surgeon Claudius Amyand, who first described it in 1735.

Clinical Features

It can be either congenital or acquired. Amyand’s hernia is 3 times more likely to be diagnosed in children than in adults, due to a patent processus vaginalis in the pediatric population. It is seen almost exclusively in males and rarely in postmenopausal patients. It is mostly asymptomatic.

The incidence of acute appendicitis in Amyand hernia is 0.1%. Complications are similar to those seen in acute appendicitis and include perforation, abscess formation, strangulation and incarceration.

Although very rare, LEFT sided Amyand hernia can be seen in patients with situs inversus, intestinal malrotation, or with a mobile cecum.

Imaging

Imaging features of an Amyand hernia include a blind-ending tubular structure arising from the cecum and extending into the inguinal sac, with or without inflammatory changes.

Management

Treatment for Amyand’s hernia is appendectomy via herniotomy, with primary hernia repair . Laparoscopic appendicectomy has been increasingly performed recently.

Other eponymous/named hernias:

Bochdalek’s HerniaCongenital Posterolateral Hernia of Diaphargm
Morgagni Hernia4Through Larry’s space in Diaphargm
Larry’s Hernia4
Gibbon HerniaHernia with Hydrocele
Bergers HerniaHernia in Pouch of Douglas
Romberg Hernia1Concurrent Ipsilateral Direct and indirect Inguinal Hernia
Saddle Hernia1
Dual Hernia1
Lumbar HerniaHernia in lumbar triangles of type Petit’s and Grynfelt
Obturator HerniaHernia through Obturator Canal
Grynfelt HerniaUpper Lumbar triangle Hernia
Petit’s HerniaLower Lumbar Triangle Hernia
Femoral Hernia        Hernia medial to Femoral Vein in Femoral canal
Cooper’s Hernia6Femoral Hernia with two sacs
Bilocular femoral Hernia6
Cloquet’s HerniaHernia Through Pectineal aponeurosis
Callison-Cloquet HerniaThrough Pectineus Muscle and its fascia
Narath’s HerniaBehind Femoral Artery in congenital dislocation of Hip
Hesselbach’s HerniaLateral to Femoral Artery
Serofini’s HerniaBehind Femoral Vessels
Laugier’s HerniaThrough Lacunar Ligament
Teale’s Hernia5In front of Femoral Vessels
Velpeau Hernia5
Richter’s HerniaPart of circumference of bowel wall is entrapped
Littre’s HerniaContains Meckel Diverticulum
Sliding HerniaHernia with a part of the wall formed by the viscus
Hernia En GlissaeHernia with a part of the wall formed by the viscus
Maydl’s Hernia2Two loops of bowel in Hernia sac with remaining part in abdomen
W Hernia/Hernia in W2
Retrograde Hernia2Two loops of bowel in Hernia sac with remaining part in abdomen
Phantom HerniaLocalised Muscle Bulge following Muscle Paralysis
Mery’s Hernia7Through the perineal floor  
Perineal Hernia7
Spigelian HerniaHernia through Speligian Fascia
Sciatic herniaHernia through greater or lesser sciatic foramen
Little’s hernia3Appendix in inguinal  Hernial Sac
Amyand hernia3
De Garengeots HerniaIncarceration of appendix within Femoral Hernia
Beclards HerniaFemoral Hernia Through Saphenous Opening
Barth’s HerniaHernia Between Adbominal wall and Persistent Vitellointestinal Duct
Holthouse’s Hernia                   Inguinal Hernia That has turned outward into the groin
Grubers HerniaInternal Mesogastric Hernia
Mesocolic herniaTransmesenteric Hernia
Kronlem HerniaInguinoproperitoneal Hernia
Trietz HerniaParaduodenal Hernia
Rieux HerniaRetrocaecal Hernia
List of All named Hernias (Hernia Eponyms/Special Hernia) Reference.

Single Best Reference Article:

Ivanschuk G, Cesmebasi A, Sorenson EP, Blaak C, Loukas M, Tubbs SR. Amyand’s hernia: a review. Med Sci Monit. 2014 Jan 28;20:140-6. doi: 10.12659/MSM.889873. PMID: 24473371; PMCID: PMC3915004.

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